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наука и техника

Whence came the name penny coins and 1 ruble?

There are different versions of the origin of the word "penny". They are all different from each other and belong to different period.\r\n\r\n1) In Russia was widely circulated silver coins of the Mongol Khan from kibæk - silver dinars. Han Kibek introduced a new benchmark currencies: coins weighing more than 8 grams was called dinars, less - dirhams. Dinars, in common parlance, became known as the "Kebek deniers" - deniers Khan from kibæk. According to the first version of the appearance of the word "penny", the Russian princes began to call small coins minting its own "cibaca".\r\n\r\n2) Vladimir Ivanovich Dal. In his dictionary contains a version of the origin of the word "penny" from the word "save". But it is not clear in this case why is the "penny" referred to this type of coins, not all of the money in General. After saving not only pennies.\r\n\r\n3) On the first coins depicted a warrior with a spear (and not George as now accepted), and this warrior no snake or dragon has been struck with a spear. Probably from the word "spear" comes the word "penny". Penny was first called "novhorodka" - the Novgorod money with a picture of a Lancer (warrior with spear). But we should not forget that at the same time, there were "sabelki, salanity" Moscow money with the image of a horseman with a sword. But the weight of the Novgorod money was equal to 1/100 of the ruble, which was most convenient. So Novgorod chasing with spear moved to Moscow and that its name has spread.
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